Crochet Abbreviations Explained

Crochet Abbreviations Explained – Master List


Learn crochet abbreviations (US terms) and what each crochet acronym means with this guide to crochet stitch abbreviations and pattern terminology.


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Crochet Abbreviations (US Terminology)

Crochet patterns use abbreviations (some call them crochet acronyms) for crochet stitches, techniques and pattern instructions to ensure the pattern isn’t too wordy. 

For many beginners, reading a pattern may feel like reading something in a different language!

In this guide, I’ll break down what each crochet abbreviation means and provide explanations and definitions to help you understand the abbreviated crochet term. 

US Crochet Terminology

Crochet terminology is different whether the pattern designer is using US terminology or UK terminology. In every pattern, it should clearly state what terminology the pattern uses. 

The crochet terminology used in this guide is referring to crochet abbreviations in US terminology. If you are more familiar with UK terminology, here’s my US to UK Crochet Terms Conversion Chart

Crochet Abbreviations Chart

Here is a quick reference chart. Explanations of each abbreviation are below. 

AbbreviationTerminology
chchain
sl st slip stitch
sc single crochet
hdc half double crochet
dcdouble crochet
trtriple/treble crochet
FLOfront loop(s) only
BLOback loop(s) only
FPscfront post single crochet
FPhdc front post half double crochet
FPdcfront post double crochet
FPtrfront post triple/treble crochet
BPscback post single crochet
BPhdcback post half double crochet
BPdcback post double crochet
BPtrback post triple/treble crochet
incincrease
decdecrease
2togtwo stitches together
st(s)stitch(es)
YOyarn over
skskip
spspace
RSright side
WSwrong side
PMplace (stitch) marker
tchturning chain
begbeginning
betbetween
patpattern
reprepeat
prevprevious
approxapproximately
remremaining
rnd(s)round(s)
mc main color
cccontrast color
Crochet Abbreviation Chart

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Crochet Abbreviations Chart
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Basic Crochet Stitch Abbreviations

Here are the most common crochet stitch abbreviations explained.

Ch = Chain Stitch 

“Ch” is the abbreviation for a chain stitch. It is one of the most basic stitches and is used to begin crochet patterns that are worked in a row. To make a chain (ch) stitch, yarn over and pull the yarn through the loop on your hook.

You may see a pattern start with the instructions to “ch 100,” for example. This means you would make 100 starting chains to begin the pattern. Learn how to start a crochet chain.

Chain stitches can also be used throughout a pattern, such as at the beginning of a row or round. Whenever the instructions say to ch 2, that means to make two chain stitches.

Sl st = Slip Stitch

“Sl st” is the abbreviation for slip stitch. A slip stitch is another basic stitch that can be used throughout a pattern and when joining a round. To make a slip stitch (sl st), insert your hook into the designated stitch. Yarn over, pull up a loop and pull it through the loop on your hook. Here is more information on how to make a slip stitch.

You may see a pattern instructing you to “sl st to join.” This generally means that after your final stitch, you would insert your hook into the top of the first stitch made in the round and slip stitch. Normally slip stitches are not counted as part of the total stitches made in the round.

Slip stitches may also be used to create a lovely pattern. For example, if you repeat: “slip stitch in the next stitch and half double crochet stitch in the next” across a row, it creates a beautiful texture. 

Sc = Single Crochet

“Sc” is the abbreviation for single crochet. A single crochet stitch is one of the fundamental stitches in crochet and is used extensively throughout many patterns. To make a single crochet (sc) stitch, insert your hook into the designated stitch. Yarn over and pull through a loop (2 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the two loops on your hook. Here is a complete guide on how to single crochet.

Hdc = Half Double Crochet

“Hdc” is the abbreviation for half double crochet A half double crochet stitch is another very common stitch. It is slightly taller than a single crochet stitch and slightly shorter than a double crochet stitch.  To make a half double crochet (hdc) stitch, yarn over and insert your hook into the designated stitch. Yarn over and pull through a loop (3 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the three loops on your hook. Here is more information on how to make a half double crochet stitch.

Dc = Double Crochet

“Dc” is the abbreviation for double crochet. A double crochet stitch is taller than a half double crochet stitch and shorter than a triple/treble crochet stitch. It’s another very popular stitch. To make a double crochet (dc) stitch, yarn over and insert your hook into the designated stitch. Yarn over and pull through a loop (3 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the first two loops on your hook – not the loop closest to you (2 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the two loops on your hook. Learn more with this guide on how to make a double crochet stitch.

Tr = Triple/Treble Crochet

“Tr” is the abbreviation for triple/treble crochet. Both the term triple crochet and treble crochet refer to this same stitch. A triple crochet stitch is taller than a double crochet stitch. To make a triple crochet (tr) stitch, yarn over twice and insert your hook into the designated stitch. Yarn over and pull through a loop (4 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the first two loops on your hook (3 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the first two loops on your hook (2 loops on how). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the two loops on your hook. Find out more about how to make a triple/treble crochet stitch.

Crochet Technique Abbreviations

Once you have learned the basic stitches as referenced above, you can expand your crochet skills with these stitches and techniques 

FLO = Front Loop Only

“FLO” means to work in the front loop(s) only. Normally, when inserting your hook into the designated stitch, you would insert your hook under both loops of the stitch you are working into. If the pattern says to work into the front loop(s) only (FLO), you would insert your hook under only the front loop, which is the loop that is closest to you. 

Single crochet in the front loop only

You can make any kind of stitch (single crochet, half double crochet, double crochet, etc) into the front loop only. The only thing that is different is where you insert your hook. You will make the stitch the exact same way, except when you insert your hook into the designated stitch, you will only insert it under the front loop. 

BLO = Back Loop Only

“BLO” means to work in the back loop(s) only. To work into the back loop(s) only (BLO), insert your hook under only the back loop, which is the loop that is furthest away from you.

Single crochet back loop only

Just like working into the front loop only, you can make any kind of stitch (single crochet, half double crochet, double crochet, etc) into the back loop only. Instead of inserting your hook under both loops of the designated stitch, you will only insert it under the back loop.

FP = Front Post (Single, Half, Double & Triple)

Working around the front post of a stitch is a technique where you insert your hook from front to back around the stem of the stitch from the row or round below. You can make a single, half double, double or triple around the front post. The name of the stitch that you will use for this technique changes based on what stitch you will be making around the stem of the stitch below. Note that some patterns may ask you to work around the stem of stitches from two or more rows below. 

FPsc = Front Post Single Crochet

“FPsc” is the abbreviation for front post single crochet. To make a front post single crochet stitch (FPsc), insert your hook from the front to the back at the right of the designated stitch and bring your hook out at the left of the same stitch. Then finish your single crochet stitch as you normally would: yarn over and pull through a loop (2 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull yarn through the last two loops on your hook.

FPhdc = Front Post Half Double Crochet

“FPhdc” is the abbreviation for front post half double crochet. To make a front post half double crochet (FPhdc) stitch, yarn over, insert your hook from the front to the back at the right of the designated stitch and bring your hook out at the left of the same stitch. Then finish your half double crochet stitch as you normally would: yarn over and pull through a loop (3 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through all three loops on your hook.

FPdc = Front Post Double Crochet

“FPdc” is the abbreviation for front post double crochet. To make a front post double crochet (FPdc) stitch, yarn over, insert your hook from the front to the back at the right of the designated stitch and bring your hook out at the left of the same stitch. Then finish your double crochet stitch as you normally would: yarn over and pull through a loop (3 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the first two loops on your hook (2 loops on hook). Yarn over, pull the yarn through the last two loops on your hook.

Crochet Pumpkin Hat Pattern

This Crochet Pumpkin Hat is made with front post single crochet and front post double crochet stitches.

FPtr = Front Post Triple/Treble Crochet

“FPtr” is the abbreviation for front post triple/treble crochet. To make a front post triple/treble crochet (FPtr) stitch, yarn over twice, insert your hook from the front to the back at the right of the designated stitch and bring your hook out at the left of the same stitch. Then finish your triple/treble crochet stitch as you normally would: Yarn over and pull through a loop (4 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull yarn through the first two loops on your hook (3 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the first two loops on your hook (2 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the last two loops on your hook.

BP = Back Post (Single, Half, Double & Triple)

Working around the back post of a stitch is a technique where you insert your hook from back to front around the stem of the stitch from the row or round below. You can make a single, half double, double or triple around the back post. The name of the stitch that you will use for this technique changes based on what stitch you will be making around the stem of the stitch below. Note that some patterns may ask you to work around the stem of stitches from two or more rows below. 

The explanations for the front post stitches referenced above are almost exactly the same as for back post stitches. The only difference is where you insert your hook. For front post stitches, you will insert your hook from front to back. For back post stitches, you will insert your hook from back to front.

BPsc = Back Post Single Crochet

“BPsc” is the abbreviation for back post single crochet. To make a back post single crochet stitch (BPsc), insert your hook from the back to the front at the right of the designated stitch and bring your hook out at the left of the same stitch. Then finish your single crochet stitch as you normally would: yarn over and pull through a loop (2 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull yarn through the last two loops on your hook.

BPhdc = Back Post Half Double Crochet

“BPhdc” is the abbreviation for back post half double crochet. To make a back post half double crochet (BPhdc) stitch, yarn over, insert your hook from the back to the front at the right of the designated stitch and bring your hook out at the left of the same stitch. Then finish your half double crochet stitch as you normally would: yarn over and pull through a loop (3 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through all three loops on your hook.

BPdc = Back Post Double Crochet

“BPdc” is the abbreviation for back post double crochet. To make a back post double crochet (BPdc) stitch, yarn over, insert your hook from the back to the front at the right of the designated stitch and bring your hook out at the left of the same stitch. Then finish your double crochet stitch as you normally would: yarn over and pull through a loop (3 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the first two loops on your hook (2 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the last two loops on your hook.

BPtr = Back Post Triple/Treble Crochet

“BPtr” is the abbreviation for back post triple/treble crochet. To make a back post triple/treble crochet (BPtr) stitch, yarn over twice, insert your hook from the back to the front at the right of the designated stitch and bring your hook out at the left of the same stitch. Then finish your triple/treble crochet stitch as you normally would: Yarn over and pull through a loop (4 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull yarn through the first two loops on your hook (3 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the first two loops on your hook (2 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the last two loops on your hook.

Inc = Increase

An increase in crochet, which is abbreviated as “inc,” involves making two stitches in the same place. That place can be a chain, stitch or space. Increases and decreases are used to shape your work.

Some patterns don’t call it an increase. Some patterns say to make two stitches in the next stitch, for example, but that is still an increase, just worded in a different way. 

Single crochet increase

When the pattern calls for an increase or to make two stitches in the same place, start by making one single crochet in the designated place (exactly the same as you normally would). Then make another stitch in the same chain, stitch or space as the stitch you just made.

When making an increase, the stitch is exactly the same, the only difference is where you are making the stitch. Note: the pattern may call for making more than two stitches in the same place.

Dec = Decrease

A decrease in crochet, which is abbreviated as “dec,” involves making two stitches together. Decreases are used to shape your work. Note: the pattern may call for making more than two stitches together.

2tog = two stitches together 

Some patterns say to make two stitches together as a decrease and others say to do this in the same stitch. Always follow the instructions in the pattern. 

  • Sc2tog = single crochet two together 
  • Hdc2tog = half double crochet two together 
  • Dc2tog = double crochet two together 
  • 3tog = three stitches together 

You may also see the pattern calls for three stitches together, which is abbreviated as 3tog (sc3tog, hdc3tog, dc3tog, etc). For these, you combine 3 or more stitches together. The pattern may also call for 4 or more stitches together. 

General Crochet Abbreviations

St = Stitch

An individual stitch is abbreviated as “st.” You may see “sc in the next st,” for example which means to single crochet in the next stitch. 

Sts = Stitches

Stitches (plural) is abbreviated as “sts.” You may see “50 sts” for example. This means at the end of the row, there are a total of fifty stitches.

YO = Yarn Over

Yarn over (or sometimes called yarning over) is abbreviated “YO” and refers to the process of bringing your hook under the yarn, allowing it to fall on the hook’s shaft/working area. 

Sk = Skip

Sk in crochet means to skip the next stitch, space or chain. When the pattern says to “sk” the next st, that means the very next stitch that you would normally work into, you do not work into it and work into the following stitch. 

Sp = Space

A space in crochet, which is abbreviated as “sp” refers to the area you should work into. A space is different than a stitch. When working into a stitch, unless otherwise instructed, you would insert your hook under both top loops of the designated stitch. When working into a space, you will insert your hook into a specific space indicated by the pattern instructions. 

Row 2 and on
Example of a pattern with instructions to work in chain 1 and chain 2 spaces.

Some examples of spaces you may work into include:

  • Ch-1 sp (or Ch-2 sp) = Chain 1 space (or Chain 2 space), which means that you would insert your hook under the one (or two) chain stitches (usually between stitches) that was made in the previous row or round. 
  • Between stitches = In a specific part of my Beautiful Baby Blanket Crochet Pattern, the pattern instructs you to work between stitches instead of into the top of them. 

RS = Right Side

The right side (abbreviated “RS”) is the front of your work. It is also called the outside for items such as pillows as the inside is hidden. Technically all projects have a right side but for many patterns, like simple, reversible blankets, it doesn’t matter which side is which.  When working on a right side row or round, the front of your work (the outside) will be facing you. 

Right and Wrong Sides in Crochet

WS = Wrong Side

The wrong side, abbreviated as “WS,” is the back of your work. It is also called the inside for items such as pillows as the inside will be hidden. Technically all projects have a wrong side but for many patterns, like simple, reversible blankets, it doesn’t matter which side is which.  When working on a wrong side row or round, the back of your work (the inside) will be facing you.

PM = Place (Stitch) Marker

When a pattern says to “PM” it means to “place marker” meaning a stitch marker in the designated stitch. Unless the pattern says otherwise, place the stitch marker in the top of the stitch. 

Place Stitch Marker

Tch = Turning Chain(s)

Every row or round in crochet normally begins with a specific number of chain stitches. You may see “ch 2” for example which means to chain two (make two chain stitches). These are often called turning chain stitches. The instructions for the pattern may ask you to work into these chain stitches and the abbreviation that is used is “tch,” which means turning chain(s). Unless otherwise instructed, work into the top of the turning chain.

Beg = Beginning

Some patterns use the abbreviation “beg” to indicate the start of the pattern (the beginning), row or round or it may be used to instruct you to begin a set of instructions. 

Bet = Between

Between in crochet patterns is often abbreviated as “bet.” Often this is referring to working between two stitches. 

Pat = Pattern

You may see the pattern being shortened to “pat.” 

Rep = Repeat

When the pattern says to “rep,” it means to repeat the instructions.

Prev = Previous

“Prev” is the abbreviation for previous.

Approx = Approximately

You’ll often see approximately abbreviated as “approx” in patterns.

Rem = Remaning

The abbreviation “rem” means remaining.

Rnd(s) = Round(s)

Crochet patterns can be worked flat, which means they are worked in rows. After completing the first row, you turn and start the second row. You can also work crochet patterns in the round. This means that each round is joined (with various joining techniques). Round is sometimes abbreviated as “rnd” and “rounds” is abbreviated as “rnds.” 

Crochet Jar Covers

For example, these Crochet Mason Jar Covers are worked in the round. After the final stitch in a round, a slip stitch is made to connect the end and the beginning.

Mc = Main Color

When crocheting with two colors, such as in a colorwork pattern, the main color may be abbreviated as “mc.” The main color is often the background.

Color Legend

Cc = Contrast Color

When crocheting with two colors, the contrast color is often abbreviated as “cc.” This is the color opposite of the main color. It can also be called the contrasting color.

Advanced Crochet Abbreviations

Dtr = Double Triple/Treble Crochet

“Dtr” is the abbreviation for double triple/treble crochet. It’s taller than a regular triple crochet (tr) stitch. Here’s how to make a double triple crochet (dtr) stitch: yarn over three times and insert your hook into the designated stitch. Yarn over and pull through a loop (5 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the first two loops on your hook (4 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the first two loops on your hook (3 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the first two loops on your hook (2 loops on hook). Yarn over and pull the yarn through the last two loops on your hook.

Bo = Bobble

“Bo” is the abbreviation for a bobble stitch. Bobble stitches can vary by pattern. Normally, a bobble stitch would be explained in the pattern notes or in a section for special stitches. A bobble is often a number of stitches together such as a double crochet (three or more) together.

Cl = Cluster

“Cl” is the abbreviation for a cluster stitch. Cluster stitches can vary by pattern. The pattern should explain instructions for the cluster stitch in the pattern notes or in a section for special stitches. Here is one example of how to do a cluster (cl) stitch.

Ps = Puff Stitch

“Ps” is the abbreviation for a puff stitch. Puff stitches vary by pattern. Refer to the “special stitches” section of the pattern or the pattern notes for exact instructions for the puff stitch. In general, a puff stitch involves yarning over a number of times (normally 7 – 11 times) and then yarning over once more and pulling the yarn through all loops on your hook.

Pc = Popcorn Stitch

“Pc” is the abbreviation for the popcorn stitch. The pattern designer should specify exact instructions for completing the popcorn stitch. When making a popcorn stitch, you will make a number of stitches in the same stitch and remove your hook after the last stitch. You will then insert your hook into the first stitch and pull the yarn through the loop on your hook.

Measurement Abbreviations

You may see these measurements abbreviated throughout a crochet pattern:

  • yd(s) = yard(s)
  • g = gram(s)
  • m = meter(s)
  • oz = ounces

I hope this helped you understand crochet abbreviations!


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